Sports medicine, also known as sport and exercise medicine (SEM), is a branch of medicine that deals with physical fitness and the treatment and prevention of injuries related to sports and exercise. Although most sports teams have employed team physicians for many years, it is only since the late 20th century that sports medicine has emerged as a distinct field of health care. Sports medicine focuses on helping people improve their athletic performance, recover from injury and prevent future injuries. It is a fast-growing health care field, because health workers who specialize in sports medicine help all kinds of people, not just athletes. Sports medicine professionals treat amateur athletes, those who want better results from their exercise program, people who have suffered injuries and are trying to regain full function and those with disabilities who are trying to increase mobility and capability.
Total Hip Replacement
A total hip replacement is a surgical procedure whereby the diseased cartilage and bone of the hip joint is surgically replaced with artificial materials. The normal hip joint is a ball and socket joint. The socket is a “cup-shaped” component of the pelvis called the acetabulum. The ball is the head of the thighbone (femur). Total hip joint replacement involves surgical removal of the diseased ball and socket and replacing them with a metal (or ceramic) ball and stem inserted into the femur bone and an artificial plastic (or ceramic) cup socket. The metallic artificial ball and stem are referred to as the “femoral prosthesis” and the plastic cup socket is the “acetabular prosthesis.” Upon inserting the prosthesis into the central core of the femur, it is fixed with a bony cement called methylmethacrylate. Alternatively, a “cementless” prosthesis is used that has microscopic pores which allow bony ingrowth from the normal femur into the prosthesis stem. This “cementless” hip is felt to have a longer duration and is considered especially for younger patients. Total hip replacement is also referred to as total hip arthroplasty.
Total Knee Replacement
Total knee replacement, or total knee arthroplasty, is a surgical procedure in which parts of the knee joint are replaced with artificial parts (prostheses). A normal knee functions as a hinge joint between the upper leg bone (femur) and the lower leg bones (tibia and fibula) . The surfaces where these bones meet can become worn out over time, often due to arthritis or other conditions, which can cause pain and swelling. Knee replacement is performed in an operating room after you are given anesthesia. The surgery takes two to three hours. After surgery, you will be monitored in a recovery area for several hours, until the effects of the anesthesia wear off. Most people stay in the hospital for one to four nights after surgery, although shorter stays are becoming more common. During this time, you will be given pain medicines. Blood clots in the legs (called deep vein thromboses) are a common concern after knee replacement surgery.
Orthopedic is the medical specialty that focuses on injuries and diseases of your body’s musculoskeletal system. This complex system, which includes your bones, joints, ligaments, tendons, muscles, and nerves, allows you to move, work, and be active. Once devoted to the care of children with spine and limb deformities, orthopedists now care for patients of all ages, from newborns with clubfeet to young athletes requiring arthroscopic surgery to older people with arthritis. And anybody can break a bone. While some physicians concentrate on sub-specialty areas such as joints or spine, general orthopedic physicians have extensive training to treat a wide array of issues, from bones, joints and cartilage to ligaments, tendons and muscles. They utilize the latest techniques, both operative and non-operative, to ensure patients receive the best treatment available. In addition, orthopedic surgeon spends many hours studying, attending continuing medical education courses, and taking self-assessment examinations to stay up-to-date.
In an arthroscopic examination, an orthopedic surgeon makes a small incision in the patient’s skin and then inserts pencil-sized instruments that contain a small lens and lighting system to magnify and illuminate the structures inside the joint. Light is transmitted through fiber optics to the end of the arthroscope that is inserted into the joint. By attaching the arthroscope to a miniature television camera, the surgeon is able to see the interior of the joint through this very small incision rather than a large incision needed for surgery. Diagnosing joint injuries and disease begins with a thorough medical history, physical examination, and usually X-rays. Additional tests such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) or computed tomography (CT) also scan mabe needed. Through the arthroscope, a final diagnosis is made, which may be more accurate than through “open” surgery or from X-ray studies. Disease and injuries can damage bones, cartilage, ligaments, muscles, and tendons.
Your shoulders do a lot of important things you might take for granted. They help you get something off a high shelf, comb your hair, or play a game of tennis or catch. A rotator cuff tear is often the result of wear and tear from daily use. You’re more likely to have this if you have a job where you need to move your arm a certain way over and over, like a painter or a carpenter, or you play sports like tennis and baseball. It also can happen suddenly if you fall on your arm or try to lift something heavy. It’s usually treated with physical therapy and medication, or you may need surgery. Tendinitis is inflammation or irritation of a tendon that attaches to a bone. It causes pain in the area just outside the joint. Common types of tendinitis include pitcher’s and swimmer’s shoulder. Bursitisis when the bursa (a small sac filled with fluid that protects your rotator cuff) gets irritated. That can happen when you repeat the same motion over and over again, like throwing a baseball or lifting something over your head. It also can be caused by an infection.